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Author:    Data:2011/5/6 17:45:43    Views:    From: 
Solar panels related knowledge

First, the principle of solar cell power generation: solar cells are a pair of light response and can convert light into electrical power devices. There are many kinds of materials that can produce photovoltaic effect, such as: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, selenium and other copper. Their power generation principle is basically the same, now crystal as an example to describe the photovoltaic power generation process. P-type crystalline silicon doped with phosphorus can be obtained N-type silicon, the formation of P-N junction. When the light is irradiated on the surface of the solar cell, a part of the photons are absorbed by the silicon material; the energy of the photon is transferred to the silicon atom, so that the electrons are moved and the free electrons are formed on both sides of the P-N junction to form a potential difference. When the circuit, in the role of the voltage, there will be a current flowing through the external circuit to produce a certain output power. The essence of this process is the process of converting photon energy into electrical energy.
Second, polysilicon solar cells and monocrystalline silicon solar cells is no different. Polycrystalline silicon solar cells and monocrystalline silicon solar cell life and stability are very good. Although the average conversion efficiency of monocrystalline silicon solar cells is about 1% higher than that of polysilicon solar cells, since monocrystalline silicon solar cells can only be quasi-square (four tops are arcs), when the solar cell modules There is a part of the area filled with dissatisfaction, and polysilicon solar cells are square, there is no such problem, so the efficiency of solar cells is the same. In addition, due to the two solar cell materials manufacturing process is not the same, polysilicon solar cell manufacturing process energy consumption than monocrystalline silicon solar cells about 30%
Monocrystalline silicon cells with high battery conversion efficiency, good stability, but the higher cost. Monocrystalline silicon battery as early as 20 years ago has exceeded the photoelectric conversion efficiency of more than 20% of the technical barrier. Polycrystalline silicon cells are less costly and slightly lower in conversion efficiency than straight-drawn monocrystalline silicon solar cells, with various defects in materials such as grain boundaries, dislocations, microdefections, and impurity carbon and oxygen in materials, as well as tarnished during process Transition metal is considered to cause polysilicon battery photoelectric conversion rate has been unable to break through 20% of the mark. Germany Fraunhofer Institute of scientific research personnel mining
With the new technology, the world's first polysilicon solar cell photoelectric conversion rate of 20.3%. From solid physics, silicon is not the ideal photovoltaic material, mainly because silicon is an indirect band of semiconductor materials, the light absorption coefficient is low, so the study of other photovoltaic materials become a trend. Among them, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium selenium
(CuInSe2) is known as two very promising photovoltaic materials, and has made some progress, but from the large-scale production, and with the crystalline silicon solar cell to compete to do a lot of work to do. Monocrystalline silicon solar cell features: 1. Photoelectric conversion efficiency, high reliability; 2. Advanced diffusion technology to ensure uniformity of conversion efficiency across the chip; 3. The use of advanced PECVD film technology, the battery surface Coated with dark blue silicon nitride antireflective film, the color uniform and beautiful; 4. Application of high-quality metal slurry production back and electrode, to ensure good conductivity. Polysilicon can be used as a raw material for drawing monocrystalline silicon. The difference between polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon is mainly manifested in the physical properties. For example, in the mechanical properties, optical properties and thermal properties of the anisotropy, far less monocrystalline silicon; in the electrical properties, the polysilicon crystal conductivity is far less than monocrystalline silicon, and even almost no conductivity. In terms of chemical activity, the difference between the two is minimal. Polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon can be distinguished from the appearance, but the real identification must be determined by analyzing the crystal crystal direction, conductivity type and resistivity. , In short supply, the development prospects are very broad. Because of this, many people say that who mastered the polysilicon and microelectronics technology, who will master the world.

In the use of solar energy, monocrystalline silicon and polysilicon also play a huge role. Although the current terms, to make solar power has a larger market, the majority of consumers to accept, we must improve the efficiency of solar cell photoelectric conversion, reduce production costs. From the current development of international solar cells can be seen that the development trend of monocrystalline silicon, polysilicon, ribbon silicon, thin film materials (including microcrystalline silicon-based film, compound-based film and dye film). From the industrial development point of view, the focus from the single crystal to the direction of the development of polysilicon and film, the main reason: A. can supply solar cell head and tail more and less; B. solar cells, the square substrate is more cost- Through the casting method and direct solidification method obtained by the polysilicon can be directly obtained square material; C. polysilicon production process continues to progress, automatic casting furnace per production cycle (50 hours) can produce more than 200 kilograms of silicon ingots, grain The size of the centimeter level; D. As nearly a decade of monocrystalline silicon technology research and development soon, in which the process is also used in the production of polycrystalline silicon cells, such as the choice of corrosion emission junction, back surface field, corrugated suede, surface and body Passivated, fine metal gate electrode, the use of screen printing technology can reduce the width of the gate electrode to 50 microns, the height of 15 microns or more, rapid thermal annealing technology for the production of polysilicon can greatly shorten the process time, single hot process time Can be completed in one minute, using the process in the 100 square centimeter of the polysilicon chip to make the battery conversion efficiency of more than 14%. It is reported that the current 50 ~ 60 micron polysilicon substrate produced on the battery efficiency of more than 16%. The use of mechanical groove, screen printing technology in the 100 square centimeter polycrystalline efficiency of more than 17%, no mechanical groove in the same area on the efficiency of 16%, using buried gate structure, mechanical groove in the 130 square centimeters of polycrystalline Battery efficiency of 15.8%. (1) monocrystalline silicon solar cell current single crystal silicon solar cell photoelectric conversion efficiency of 17%, the highest reached 24%, which is all types of solar cells in the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the highest, but the production cost is very large, So that it can not be used extensively and widely. As monocrystalline silicon generally used tempered glass and waterproof resin for packaging, so its durable, life up to 25 years. (2) polycrystalline silicon solar cell polycrystalline silicon solar cell production process and monocrystalline silicon solar cells almost, but the polysilicon solar cell photoelectric conversion efficiency will have to reduce a lot of its photoelectric conversion efficiency of about 15%. From the cost of production, than the monocrystalline silicon solar cells to be cheaper, easy to manufacture materials, saving power consumption, the total cost of production is low, so get a lot of development. In addition, the polysilicon solar cell life than monocrystalline silicon solar cells shorter. From the performance and price ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cells also slightly better. (3) amorphous silicon solar cells (thin film solar cells) amorphous silicon solar cells in 1976 is the emergence of new thin film solar cells, and monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar cell production methods are completely different, greatly simplifies the process, Silicon material consumption is very small, lower power consumption, its main advantage is in low light conditions can generate electricity. However, the main problem of amorphous silicon solar cells is the low efficiency of photoelectric conversion, the current international advanced level of about 10%, and not stable enough, with the extension of time, the conversion efficiency of attenuation.

Third, the series can increase the output voltage, parallel can provide the output current. Using a series parallel method to achieve, for example: need 220 volts 10 amps. Using 880 0.5 volt 5 amp output of the battery, the series 440 as the first group, and then get a second group, and then two groups and then in parallel, you can get 220 volts 10 amps output. Standard Test Method for Solar Panel Standard Test Method Solar Panel Standard Test Method Solar Panel Standard Test Method Solar Panel Standard Test Method (Simulated Solar Light) One Standard Test Method for Solar Panel , Open circuit voltage: 500W halogen lamp, 0 ~ 250V AC adapter, light intensity is set to 3.8 to 4.0 million LUX, lamp and test platform distance of about 15-20CM, direct test value for the open circuit voltage; Short circuit current: 500W halogen lamp, 0 ~ 250V AC adapter, light intensity is set to 3.8 ~ 40,000 LUX, lamp and test platform distance of about 15-20CM, direct test value for the short circuit current; Voltage: with 500W halogen lamp, 0 ~ 250V AC transformer, light intensity is set to 3.8 ~ 40000 LUX, the distance between the lamp and the test platform is about 15-20CM, positive and negative in parallel with a corresponding resistance, The value of the calculation: R = U / I), the test value for the working voltage; Fourth, the working current: 500W halogen lamp, 0 ~ 250V AC transformer, light intensity is set to 3.8 ~ 40,000 LUX, The distance between the test platform is about 15-20CM, a corresponding series resistance, (resistance value calculation: R = U / I), the test value for the working current. Solar parameters and indicators of knowledge of solar parameters and indicators of knowledge of solar parameters and indicators of knowledge of solar parameters and indicators of knowledge Q: solar panels in the cloud or fluorescent lamp can produce electricity? A: The exact argument is to produce a very small current. Can be said to be ignored. Q: In incandescent or sunlight can produce much current? A: In the incandescent distance is different from the same. The same sun morning, noon, afternoon, the current is different. Q: What is the solar energy test standard? In the case of incandescent bulbs how much bulb how long? A: The standard test of solar energy intensity: 40000LUX, temperature: 25 degrees. We have done the test incandescent 100W, 0.5 - Q: How long is the lifetime of solar panels? A: The general packaging of different service life will be different, the general tempered glass / aluminum alloy frame life of more than 20 years. Epoxy resin Package for more than 15 years. Q: Why is the solar cell under the sun and the factory test parameters are different?

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